Fauna - Vertebrates
Encephalartos senticosus

Eswatini's Threatened Flora

Information on the flora of Eswatini has been gradually improving over the years, resulting in better information on which to base lists of threatened species.

The legislation for the protection of indigenous flora was updated in 2000.

This replaced The Flora Protection Act of 1952.

With regard to Eswatini red list information, the list of species included in the Southern African Plant Red Data Lists, published by SABONET in 2002 (see Flora Red Data Lists) is in need of an update.

In 2022/2023, draft global red list assessments were prepared for Eswatini's endemic and near endemic flora. The draft assessments can be viewed here. These assessments are awaiting review, and then will be published on the IUCN Red List website.

The southern African status of many species can be found on SANBI's Red List of South African Plants, which includes nearly all of Eswatini's flora.

On an international level, the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species included information on 137 species of plants for Eswatini in August 2017, most of these listed as Least Concern. As at May 2023, their list for Eswatini now includes 607 taxa, with 2 Extinct in the Wild, 1 Critically Endangered, 5 Endanagered, 9 Vulnerable, 5 Near Threatened, 582 Least Concern, and 2 Data Deficient.

The following list includes information as at 2017, this will be updated to add current information.

Category Species Status
Extinct in the Wild Encephalartos relictus Extinct in the Wild ver 3.1
Critically Endangered Encephalartos laevifolius (Kaapsehoop Cycad) Critically Endangered A2acde+4acde ver 3.1
Encephalartos heenanii (Heenan's Cycad) Critically Endangered B1ab(ii,iv,v)+2ab(ii,iv,v) ver 3.1
Endangered Warburgia salutaris (Pepper Bark Tree) Endangered A1acd ver 2.3
Encephalartos lebomboensis (Lebombo Cycad) Endangered A2acd; B1ab(ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(ii,iii,iv,v) ver 3.1
Encephalartos umbeluziensis (Umbeluzi Cycad) Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v); C1 ver 3.1
Vulnerable Ocotea kenyensis Vulnerable A1cd ver 2.3
Prunus africana (Red Stinkwood) Vulnerable A1cd ver 2.3
Encephalartos aplanatus Vulnerable A2acd; B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v); C1 ver 3.1
Encephalartos paucidentatus (Barberton Cycad) Vulnerable A2acd; B1ab(i,iii,iv,v); C1 ver 3.1
Encephalartos senticosus (Jozini Cycad) Vulnerable A2acd; C1 ver 3.1
Encephalartos ngoyanus (Ngoye Dwarf Cycad) Vulnerable A4acd; C1 ver 3.1
Near Threatened Disa extinctoria Near Threatened ver 3.1
Data Deficient Cassipourea swaziensis Data Deficient ver 2.3
Data Deficient Psoralea arborea Data Deficient ver 2.3
Lower Risk Faurea macnaughtonii Lower Risk/conservation dependent ver 2.3
Catha edulis Lower Risk/least concern ver 2.3
Ceropegia decidua Lower Risk/least concern ver 2.3
Entandrophragma caudatum Lower Risk/least concern ver 2.3
Vitellariopsis dispar Lower Risk/least concern ver 2.3
Protea comptonii Lower Risk/near threatened ver 2.3
Pterocarpus angolensis (Bleedwood Tree) Lower Risk/near threatened ver 2.3
Least Concern 115 species

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